3 Cups of Coffee Per Day to Live Longer?
A large study found that heavy coffee drinkers suffer less from diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers, which reduces their risk of death. Another confirms.
The small coffee that we take to wake up in the morning, stimulate the day or to share a moment of conviviality could it allow us to live longer? This is what studies suggest. The molecules of coffee that can influence health are caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol.
Fewer diseases with 3-4 cups per day
According to a large study published in BMJ, people who drink three to four cups of coffee a day would benefit more than harmful to their health. Robin Poole and his team at Southampton University conducted an “umbrella” study from 201 studies. An “umbrella” study consists of synthesizing analyzes to summarize a research on a theme. Researchers found that coffee consumption was safe in “usual” consumption ranges. People who consumed coffee were less likely to suffer from certain cancers: prostate, endometrium, skin and liver. They also had less type 2 diabetes and cirrhosis. The maximum benefit was for three to four cups a day, except for pregnant women or those at risk of fractures.
For those who consumed three to four cups of coffee a day, the risk of death was reduced by 17%, cardiovascular mortality by 19%, cardiovascular risk by 15%. These results result globally from observational studies, which do not formally establish a causal link. But they go in the same direction as other works.
A reduced risk of mortality with 2-3 cups
In another large-scale study published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2014, authors from Kyung Hee University (Seoul) and the Harvard School of Public Health (Boston) investigated the association between coffee consumption and mortality. They selected 20 studies including 129,538 deaths among 973,904 participants.
In all studies, the risk of death for those who consumed the most coffee compared to those who consumed the least was reduced by 14%. The researchers differentiated between studies where the largest consumers drank at least 2 to 4 cups a day and those who drank at least 5 to 9 cups a day;the decreases in mortality risk were similar.
Regarding geographical differences, the association appeared to be stronger in the 8 studies conducted in Europe, where the risk reduction was 22%, and in the 3 studies in Japan, with a reduced risk of 18%; in the 9 studies conducted in the United States, the risk of death only decreased by 8%. There was no noticeable difference between the sexes.
In addition, a weak but significant association was found with moderate coffee consumption: the risk of mortality decreased by 8% with a consumption of 1 to 2 cups per day.
Finally, high consumption of decaffeinated coffee was also associated with reduced risk of death, but data was limited. Decaffeinated coffee does not contain caffeine, the molecule that stimulates the nervous system and promotes waking.
It must be repeated that these studies are observational studies, which do not allow us to conclude that there is a cause and effect relationship. In addition, the risk reductions are low: 10 to 20% on average. These results must therefore be taken with caution. If you are convinced, you can drink 1 to 3 cups of coffee each day. There are however contraindications which are those of caffeine. During pregnancy and lactation, it is best not to drink more than 2 cups a day, the equivalent of 200 mg of caffeine. Coffee is not recommended for children, anxiety disorders, glaucoma. Caution in hypertension and osteoporosis.