What Are The Causes Of Child Obesity?
Child Obesity is characterized from a level of overweight defined according to the age, the sex and the body mass index. Then, what are the causes of child obesity?
Although a predisposition to the overweight can result from the complex interaction of more than 250, markers
and chromosome regions, the phenotype “obese” is often due to an interaction between the genes and environment. Moreover, to have an obese parent is one of the most powerful factors to predict the child obesity.
Because of the lack of surveillance data, it is impossible to determine if it is the physical activity decrease, the energy contribution increase or the effect combined by these two factors which is responsible of the fast increase of the number of cases of child obesity in the country. The limited data which we have given to think that the physical inactivity, which includes sedentary activities such the number of hours spent to watch television and the use of the other electronic media, plays an important role in the appearance of the obesity and the excess weight for the children.
The physical activity plays a role in the arisen of an overweight. Today, the children are more sedentary than at the past.
The physical activity contributes to decrease the energy balance. Furthermore, it plays a favorable role on the physical composition, the functional capacities and the children development.
It also has a favorable influence on the food contributions. A study carried out on children so showed that more the children are active, more their percentage of fat mass is low, whereas their energy contributions are higher. This increase of the contributions in energy resulting essentially from carbohydrates, the active children have a better food balance (low percentage of lipids and high of carbohydrates). This study also shows a significant positive relation between hours passed in front of the television and the body mass index.
Certain eating behavior, as the consumption of food rich in energy and sweet drinks are associated to an excess weight for the children.
In a similar, certain way other eating behaviors, as the fact of eating a lot of fruits and vegetables, drinking some milk and taking the meals in family, seem to have a protective effect.
It is thus advisable to search understand better the food dynamics of the children, since the incidence of the knowledge, the capacities and the motivation of the parents as well as the time which the latter have on food offered to the children, up to the cellular mechanisms responsible for the influence of certain food on the appetite and the metabolism regulators.
It seems that the energy imbalance arising before the conception and before the birth would play a critical role in the formation of the energy reserves and the determination of the metabolic profile for children.
Recent researches reveal that the overeating and undereating during the prenatal period can predispose a person to the obesity and that seem by different mechanisms. It also considers that certain factors which intervene shortly after the birth, as the weight in the birth and the infants food, are likely determiners of an obesity during the childhood or at a more advanced age. The specific processes responsible for the relative protection conferred by the breastfeeding remain to clarify.
Important progress was realized since a few years in the understanding of genetic bases of the obesity. There is indeed an inequality of the individuals in face of the obesity. The studies of comparison of the body truths twins and the body fraternal twins as well as the studies of comparison of subject’s body adopted comparing with that of the natural families and the foster families plead in favor of the existence of genetic factors.
The genetic studies of the populations learn us that the heritability of the obesity oscillates from 25 to 45%.
The discovery of the leptin (hormone secreted by the adipose tissue having a role satietogen) and of its regulating role of the food taking, a few years ago, had let hope for possibilities of treatment which revealed at the moment disappointing for man.