Young Moms: Follow These 3 Tips to Keep Your Child Slim
The diet of young children must be adapted to their needs: a diet too high in protein is associated with a higher body mass index and increases the risk of obesity.
To limit the risk of overweight and obesity in children here are 3 things you can do.
Breastfeeding, of course
The composition of human milk is perfectly adapted to the needs of the infant and has the particularity of evolving according to the age of the child. Infant formulas are richer in protein, which promotes obesity.
A Japanese study has shown that the protective effect of breast-feeding on body mass index is latent and visible only at the age of 7-8 years. Breastfeeding for at least 4 months reduces the risk of obesity and obesity by 33% and 44% respectively for children aged 7-10 years.
Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity: first, a difference in behavior, breast-fed children would have the ability to recognize the feeling of satiety more easily, which would lead to better self-regulation Energy inputs later in life; Then the presence of bioactive factors in human milk which lead to a decrease in appetite in children and a lower protein intake in breastfed babies, which is associated with a decrease in the risk of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on obesity may also be explained by dietary preferences, with breastfed children having the ability to adapt more readily to new foods, notably because the taste of human milk changes Depending on the mother’s dietary choices.
In order not to lose the benefits of breastfeeding, the diet of children before 2 years must contain enough fats.
Limit cow’s milk before the age of one year
Children who drank “basic” cow’s milk (excluding milk formula) before a year grow larger than those who have been breast-fed. In this study, 1112 British children were classified according to whether they were breastfed at the age of 8 months, they were given an infant formula (based on adapted cow’s milk), or they drank classical cows’ milk from the supermarket. Weight and height were measured 14 times until the age of 10 years.
Children who drank conventional cow’s milk (at least 600 mL per day) at 8 months of age were significantly heavier than breast-fed children throughout the study period, with the greatest difference occurring at age Of 18 months. Their body mass index was also significantly higher. They were taller, between 25 and 43 months. Between 8 and 37 months, formula-fed infants (who provide less protein than basic cow’s milk) were also heavier and taller than breast-fed children, when these formulas represented more than 600 mL per day The age of 8 months.
This study suggests that children who drink cow’s milk have difficulty regulating their energy consumption. At the age of 8 months, they swallow nearly 180 calories and 72% more protein than breastfed children. Children who take an infant formula also receive more calories than breast-fed infants and almost 20% extra protein, but these preparations are more suited than the base milk.
Think Vegetable Proteins
A study published in the Journal of Nutrition reports that children with higher protein intake at one year of age also have a higher body weight, weight and body mass index at age 9. This association is stronger with proteins of animal origin. 3564 children participated in this study. The protein intake was determined at the age of 1 year and then several times until the age of 9 years.
The results show that, at one year of age, children consume an average of 42.1 g / day of total protein (intakes well above recommendations), 26.5 g / day of animal proteins and 15.1 g / Day of vegetable protein. Children who have higher protein intake at one year of age also have a higher height, weight and BMI at 9 years of age. 10 g of additional protein per day at one year of age are associated with an increase of 0.2 cm in height, 0.4 kg in weight and 0.1 points in BMI at age 9. This association between protein intake and growth is stronger with proteins of animal origin than with proteins of plant origin. The authors showed in another study that the increase in body mass index in children with high protein intake corresponds to an increase in body fat.
Overall, animal protein comes from dairy products, meat, fish, eggs and cheese.Vegetable proteins are found in soybeans and other legumes, quinoa, buckwheat. Some children were allergic to soy.
Grube MM,. Does Breastfeeding Help to Reduce the Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity? A Propensity Score Analysis of Data from the KiGGS Study. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 26; 10 (3): e0122534. Doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0122534. ECollection 2015.
Hopkins D, Steer CD, Northstone K, Emmett PM. Effects on childhood body habitus of feeding large volumes of cow or formula milk with breastfeeding in the last part of infancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 9. pii: ajcn100529. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26354544
Braun KV . Dietary Intake of Protein in Early Childhood Is Associated with Growth Trajectories between 1 and 9 Years of Age. J Nutr. 2016 Oct 12. pii: jn237164.[Epub ahead of print]
Voortman T. Protein intake in early childhood and body composition at the age of 6 years: The Generation R Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Jun; 40 (6): 1018-25.Doi: 10.1038 / ijo.2016.29. Epub 2016 Feb 15.